The secret to the golf swing is the next thing you have to learn about your swing.
…putting recommendations, based on the author’s (Steve Long’s) experience
Keep the wrists fixed in relation to the arms, and the arms in relation to each other. The shoulders and torso provide a hinge to create movement.
Try to minimize the lag of the putter in relation to the arms, and also any passing of the clubhead ahead of the hands. To more easily keep the putter in fixed relation to the arms, you can try to torque the leading and trailing hands in opposite directions…leading hand so as to push the club toward the target and the right or trailing hand in the away from the target. Set the torques to balance out, so the wrists are steady at address and steady during the swing. This procedure makes it easier to swing the club without lag or its opposite. This might also help to avoid getting the yips, as there is no delicate operation required with the hands in this procedure.
Keep the elbows more straight than bent.
Let the putter-arm system hang by gravity in such a way that the club head is on a vertical plane through the eyes, mainly by adjusting the distance of the hands from the hips. If the arms-club system are hanging by gravity, then this system can be swung in a vertical plane, which it should be. Stop at various positions along the stroke and let gravity stabilize the position of the system after you give it a nudge in or out; this indicates arc points of the stroke.
Keep the shoulders pulled lightly down to the torso to stabilize shoulder height on the torso; this will keep the club face more square, but it will not impede the gravity hang of the arms which can still hang freely.
If the arms-club system moves in vertical planes, and the eyes are directly over the club head, then the golfer should see the moving club head as staying over the putting line.
You can try letting your head turn with your torso (it concentrates brain power on the torso and shoulder area, and away from the neck) to make a simpler swing. This is easy to do when the eyes follow the clubhead, as described below.
To check your arc, watch the clubhead during the stroke. Watching the club head during the stroke will provide cues to your nervous system and keep the stroke smooth. It also shows you the path and length of your stroke, for control and correction. Swing back and forth watching and smoothing the stroke, then close your eyes while continuing the stroke, and then open your eyes while focusing on an imaginary impact target while continuing the stroke. Or keep watching the clubhead during the stroke as a your regular method.
Practice aiming with training aids. On a floor with perpendicular lines, place the putter head on a target line and the club face exactly behind a perpendicular line. Follow the target line with your eyes from the club face to the end of the line and back to the club face. Do it again with each eye separately, closing the other eye. Notice also how the aim of the club face may appear different with each eye. Two eyes looking at the same time, even if they see differently, might be better than one for aiming. Maybe not. I don’t know of anyone who closes one eye to aim, but it might work. It’s not clear whether the brain can aim with two different pictures, one from each eye, better than it can with one picture (with one eye closed).
Use the same brand of ball on a regular basis, or use different brands of balls tested for bounce height so they all bounce to the same height. Test balls by dropping them (the reference ball and the tested ball next to each other) on a hard floor. Keep a reference ball for this purpose.
Try to develop a system of distance control using various combinations of backswing length and acceleration of the arms-club unit. I have not seen an attempt to study or systemize the variation in backswing length and acceleration for different putt lengths. I know when I practice on a real green, and when I am repeating the same putt over and over, I tend toward one backswing length with slight corrections in power (acceleration) in order to get the exact distance. When I first start this procedure, however, I often find that the backswing is too long or too short for my taste. I adjust the backswing length until I get a likable acceleration, and then make slight corrections in power as mentioned above. There is room here for some research by anyone who wants to spend the time.
2. The Swing
1. Natural Sway. Something never mentioned so it’s our little “secret:” LET your body move forward on the backswing and then backward on the downswing, then forward on the followthrough. This is not a big movement, but it should be there for swing simplification. This is not left and right. Forward means the direction you face at address. “Soft ankles” help with this. Do not prevent yourself from moving forward on the backswing. You might be tempted to push down with your toes to prevent forward movement on the backswing, but this is dangerous.
The theory is that counter-motion is a natural reaction to swinging a club or any weight around you, and if you resist this motion you will make it hard or impossible to get your main body mass back to hitting position by impact, so that you will be forced to compensate by swinging outward and/or downward with the arms to avoid a mis-hit. Speed of the swing makes no difference on the amount of motion. The variance in the motion results from the mass of the club and the incline of your swing plane. Longer clubs and flatter swing planes cause more movement.
Rory McIlroy and many others have this sway movement. You can see it on video here; the first example is about 35 seconds in, and another at one minute 40 seconds, among others. The head moves forward on the backswing, backward on the downswing, and forward again on the followthrough (very quickly on the downswing so it is a little hard to see). It is more prominent with the longer clubs because they have flatter swings.
2. Don’t “move off the ball” (to the trailing side) on the backswing. Moving to the trailing side again makes it very difficult to get back into the hitting position, requiring a lot of unnecessary leg work and timing. If you don’t move off the ball, less physical effort and physical coordination is required, so the swing is easier to produce and thus more consistent. To learn to stay centered, put your feet together, then pose in various positions of the swing, keeping the weight on each foot the same.
3. Ideally, the backswing starts tangent to the target line. (In general. If you hit up on a drive, you need to impact the ball a little from the inside. If you hit down on a shot, you need to impact a tiny bit from the outside.) Use slow motion and short swings to assure this. Back and forth motion is useful here as well, gradually lengthening the swing. Don’t open the club face on the backswing. Don’t cock the wrists upward. Don’t begin cocking the wrists until half way through the backswing.
4. Pose in positions. Very slowly move between positions.
3. Exercise and Power.
1. Don’t do low rep exercises (one to five repetitions) at maximum weight. Do more reps than five, unless you have a professional trainer. You get stronger doing fewer reps but you could get too strong too quickly. You could endanger your tendons and ligaments, as they usually do not strengthen as fast as muscles, and they could get overpowered and damaged by excessive muscle force. You will get stronger with higher rep counts, perhaps not as quickly, and also have the advantage of increased blood flow, which is what the tendons and ligaments especially need for growth.
2. POWER and Clubhead speed. To increase strength for more distance, there is one particular exercise that can strengthen all the critical muscles at the same time.
There are various ways to do it but it is always resistance against the downswing movement of the arms. Both arms at the same time is the best way, so as to place realistic force on the torso. You can use a rope-pulley-weights device, or a stretch band, or even a golf club locked over something. It’s better when the hands are oriented like they are on a club during the swing. To use a golf club, take a short iron and hold it with the toe pointing down so you can hook it over something. Find a location where you can hook the club head over something that won’t move, like a baluster on a stairs. The club head should be around shoulder level. Your body should be in a pre-impact position, with the leading arm about 30 to 45 degrees before impact. The wrists are still cocked at about 90 degrees. You pull the club with your arms in the direction of the shaft, and you try to uncock the wrists. You will feel muscles throughout your body doing work, but mainly the muscles that move the arms. Treat this exercise like other exercises, even though there is no movement. Do each rep for a few seconds and then rest for a few seconds. It is good to allow blood to flow between reps. Apply force gradually for the first few reps. Do sets if necessary. A weight machine or stretch band work similarly but allow movement. The advantage of a weight machine is that you know how hard you are working and how much your strength is improving. It is interesting that strength and club head speed are not proportional to each other. To increase your clubhead speed by 1.4 times, you will need to double your strength. Generally, the speed is increased a little less than half of the increase in strength.
Downswing Resistance Exercise. Also works with stretch bands and static devices: see text